Can I Add a Column or Filter to a List?
The short answer is that you can't add new columns or filters to a list.
If the list is on a dynamic page, you may be able to adjust which columns and filters are displayed. But only for the columns and filters already made available on the list. Adding new ones requires programming.
Each list view element on a dynamic page has Enabled and Disabled columns. For example, the list for a My Assignments tab on a home page:
If the column you want to display is not there, it would require additional programming to make it available.
The cost to make a field available as a column depends on the field and list, but generally is between $500 and $1,000. See Requesting Changes.
The cost to make a field a filter on a list also depends on the field and list, and can vary between no additional cost beyond adding the field, to an additional $500.
If a list view has no enabled columns, it will display a default set.
For general information on editing forms and profiles, see Process Management - Editing Forms and Links.
Embedding a report on a page with the Report Part block to replace or supplement a list might be an alternative if a list doesn't offer the desired options.